ICMR looks at COVID-19 vaccine launch

Image   Clinicians differ: Covaxin has ‘potential’, but it is unlikely to be ready by that time. A vaccine for COVID-19 from India is unlikely to be ready for public use by August 15 but early data on whether it is safe and proof of its working could be available by then, say clinicians involved with the trial. The vaccine candidate, called Covaxin, has been developed by Hyderabad-based, Bharat Biotech India Ltd (BBIL) who got approvals from the Drug Controller General of I... Read More

Clostridium difficile

Image Clostridium difficile (klos-TRID-e-um dif-uh-SEEL), also known as Clostridioides difficile and often referred to as C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Illness from C. difficile most commonly affects older adults in hospitals or in long-term care facilities and typically occurs after use of antibiotic medications. However, studies show increasing rates of C. difficile infection among people traditionally not considered to be at high ris... Read More

Soil Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis

Image With delayed treatment, schistosome and soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in young children (<5 years)could potentially lead to irreversible lifelong detrimental health effects. This is because these infections are known tocause suboptimal growth and development in this critical phase of life. The present study sought to document theburden of schistosome and STH infections in TaitaTaveta County, Kenya, by determining the prevalence andintensity of the infections in children less than 5 years of age. The study also appraised the association betweeninfecti... Read More

Illness of Stomach- Paediatric Giardiasis

Image Giardiasis, an illness that affects the digestive tract (stomach and intestines), is caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia lamblia. The parasite attaches itself to the lining of the small intestines in humans, where it interferes with the body's absorption of fats and carbohydrates from digested foods. Giardia is one of the chief causes of diarrhea in the United States, and spreads throug... Read More

Cancer Antigen 125 Application and Test in Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Image Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection thatattacks the lungs and spread to other organs. Globally, tuberculosisremains one of the leading causes of death and public health problems despite dramatic improvements made in providing access to high-quality TB services. WHO estimates that about one third of all incidentcases of active TB are not properly diagnosed or receive care of poorquality outside of national TB programs. Among diagnosed cases,the delay of the result is often long. Determination of diseaseactivity of pulmonary tub... Read More

Significance of General Medicines

Image There has been a spate of drug related illnesses and deaths reported from Pakistan in the press this year. In November, at least 17 people died in the eastern city of Lahore after drinking toxic cough syrup. Earlier in January, an adulterated heart medicine dispensed by the Punjab Institute of Cardiology claimed lives of at least 69 heart patients. It seems appropriate to put these happenings in some perspective.    Cough syrups have been at the center of several cases of mass poisonings around the world in recent years, often involving accidental or intentiona... Read More

Immune response Towards Covid-19

Image The world experienced the outbreaks of coronavirus infection that threaten global pandemic in 2002-2003 by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and in 2011 by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). In both cases, the causative agents (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively) were newly identified coronavirus in the genus Beta coronavirus with zoonotic origin. At the end of 2019, outbreak of another coronavirus that causes respiratory-related illness was reported in Wuhan, Hubei, China, a disease now officially called “ the Corona Virus Disease 2019; COVID-19”. The coronavirus ... Read More

Unanswered Questions about Covid-19

Image It’s easy to forget that just a few months ago, the virus that is causing the Covid-19 pandemic around the world was not known, at all, to science. In the months and weeks since, researchers have been learning as much as they can about this pathogen — and at breakneck speed. Scientists have sequenced its genome and begun to create vaccines in the hope of making people immune to it. They’ve also learned, critically, that people can pass the virus on to others before they get symptom... Read More

Clinical Association of Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) Anti-NuMA1 and Anti-NuMA2 (Anti-HsEg5)

Image The prevalence of anti-NuMA1 and anti-NuMA2 antibodies in autoimmune, hepatic, infectious and renal inflammatory diseases is well known; however, its presence and possible relevance in cardiovascular diseases still needs to be elucidated. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of positive anti-NuMA1 and anti-NuMA2 antibody patterns in subjects with autoimmune, non-autoimmune and/or cardiac diseases. Material and methods: This was an observational study run from January 2010 to January 2018. Individuals whose treating physician requested an antibody study and we detected anti NuMA1 and anti NuMA2 p... Read More

Treatment Development of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Image The treatment chosen for your CML largely depends on the phase of your disease, your age and general health. Most people with CML will be treated with drugs called tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). TKIs work by blocking the activity of an enzyme called bcr-abl and thereby preventing the growth and proliferation of the leukemic cells. The most common decision to be made at diagnosis is which of the three available TKI drugs is most suited to you.  This varies from person to person and your doctor will examine all the information about you that is available to them to decide on the most... Read More

Treatment of Dracunculus Medinensis Infection with Cotrimoxazole

Image Treatment of dracunculiasis in endemic foci may involve either surgery or chemotherapy. Surgical removal of dracunculus is widely practiced in several endemic areas, when the outline of a worm can be seen orpalpated. This approach is however not effective if the worm has burst in the tissue or has broken the skin more than a few days previously. It is also difficult to remove the worm when it is embedded in deep fascia. Over the years, several therapeutic substances have been employed in the treatment of dracunculiasis. Among the earliest trial substances used in West Africa and India were ... Read More

Perceptions, Attitude and Knowledge of Five Moments of Hand Hygiene Practices among Healthcare Workers

Image   The practice of hand hygiene by healthcare workers is critical to preventing Healthcare-associated infections. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Awka, Nigeria. A pretested, structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the participant’s demographics, their knowledge and attitude to hand hygiene practices. The data collected were anal... Read More

Improving Laboratory Turnaround Time in a High Throughput Medical Laboratory

Image   One measure of efficiency in a diagnostic laboratory is promptness in producing results. With this in mind, turnaround time (TAT) has become a conspicuous indicator reflecting a lab’s efficiency. Delays in TAT in a high throughput laboratory such as Quantum Diagnostics were identified. Urgent and non-urgent tests TAT which includes H. pylori and EBV tests alongside routine biochemistry were collected from July 2017 till January 2019. Prior to August 2017, samples were run for biochemistry tests on Cobas 8000 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) prior to processing... Read More

The role of a statistician in drug development: Pre-Clinical Drug Development

Image Before a novel compound is evaluated in human trials, preliminary characterization of the toxicology profile as well as the efficacy and drug metabolism should be assessed in pre-clinical studies. This can be performed using basic techniques or more advanced strategies such as pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modelling. The findings may be used to predict how humans would react to the drug, as the disease progression and the PK-PD relationship in humans could be consistent, to some extent, with animal study results. Furthermore, data accumulated from animal experiments that have been... Read More

What are the stages of drug development process?

Image The process of bringing a medicine to the market takes up to 12 years, from initial discovery in the laboratory, through the phases of clinical testing to being licensed and available on the market. Once a molecule is discovered, it undergoes extensive laboratory testing and experiments with animals in order to show its potential properties, safety and its value as a new therapy. The results from the pre-clinical phase are then submitted to regulatory authorities for approval to be tested on people in clinical trials. The clinical trials stage consists of three main phas... Read More

Why Preventing Cancer Is Not the Priority in Drug Development

Image The way the patent system interacts with the Food and Drug Administration’s drug approval process skews what kinds of cancer clinical trials are run. There’s more money to be made investing in drugs that will extend cancer patients’ lives by a few months than in drugs that would prevent cancer in the first place. “R & D on cancer prevention and treatment of early-stage cancer is very socially valuable,” the authors told me in an email, “yet our work shows that society provides private firms — perhaps inadvertently — with surprisi... Read More

How Do Cells Recognize Signals?

Image Author Name: Keith Howell Category Name: Medical science Description: Most cell signals are chemical in nature. For example, prokaryotic organisms have sensors that detect nutrients and help them navigate toward food sources. In multicellular organisms, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters, and extracellular matrix components are some of the many types of chemical signals cells use. These sub... Read More

COVID-19: Prevention & Investigational Treatments

Image COVID-19 is the disease caused by an infection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, first identified in the city of Wuhan, in China's Hubei province in December 2019. COVID-19 was previously known as 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) respiratory disease before the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the official name as COVID-19 in February 2020. Symptoms The most common symptoms of COVID-19 include dry cough, fever, and shortness of breath. It is thought that symptoms can appear between 2-14 days after exposure although there have been isolated cases whic... Read More

Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine and other potential COVID-19 treatments

Image During two of this week’s White House briefings, President Trump referred specifically to two potential treatments that have been identified by medical researchers and clinicians, and that have undergone various degrees of investigation and testing in the ongoing fight against the global coronavirus pandemic. It’s important to note upfront that regardless of what you may have heard, from Trump or any other sources, no drugs or treatments have been proven as effective for either the prevention of contracting COVID-19 or for its treatment. That said, a number of differen... Read More

The Importance of Medicines

Image There has been a spate of drug related illnesses and deaths reported from Pakistan in the press this year. In November, at least 17 people died in the eastern city of Lahore after drinking toxic cough syrup. Earlier in January, an adulterated heart medicine dispensed by the Punjab Institute of Cardiology claimed lives of at least 69 heart patients. It seems appropriate to put these happenings in some perspective.   Cough syrups have been at the center of several cases of mass poisonings around... Read More

How Are Diseases Transmitted?

Image Overview  Infectious diseases are transmitted from person to person by direct or indirect contact. Certain types of viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi can all cause infectious disease. Malaria, measles, and respiratory illnesses are examples of infectious diseases.  Simple preventative measures, such as frequent hand washing, can cut down on disease transmission.   Direct cont... Read More

Drug Absorption

Image Absorption is the transfer of the drug into the bloodstream. In IV this process is complete thus the whole dose reaches the systemic circulation. However in other routes of administration the rate and efficiency is dependent on many factors and usually on ly results in partial absorption. Transport in GIT Due to their chemical properties, drugs are absorbed either by passive diffusion or active transport. Passive diffusion: Passive diffusion is facilitated by the concentration gradient accross the membrane. The drug moves from ... Read More

Drug Analysis

Image What is Drugs Analysis? Within forensic science the role of the drugs section is to prove to a satisfactory level to the court, including the defence, what a substance is and ascertain whether or not it contains any drugs controlled under current legislation. To do this to the level required by the court involves performing a chemical analysis.  As well as determining exactly what drug may be in a given substance (qualitative analysis), further chemical analysis can determine the amount of the drug present and thereby provide the purity of the substance (quan... Read More

Biosensor H2O2 by Using Immobilized Horseradish Peroxidase Glutaraldehyde

Image An enzymatic biosensor has been developed for detection of hydrogen peroxide with immobilized Horseradish peroxidase (HRP). HRP was immobilized by using glutaraldehyde (GA) that cross linked with modified polyaniline (PANI) as mediator to improve electron transfer. Modified carbon paste electrodes (MCPE) PANI was more effective during electron transfer compared to carbon paste electrodes (CPE). Cyclic voltammetry method (VC) was used to determine the electrochemical properties of the modified electrode substrate to produce redox reactions. The effect of pH and temperature were analysed by c... Read More

Enzyme Enabled Antibiotic Production

Image Manufacturing is the life line and driver of economic development; by producing goods we not only achieve growth but also vastly improve our quality of life. Manufacturing in simple terms means taking certain raw materials and converting them into value added products and invariably nuisance value by-products or creating eco-impact at various levels and with more. In addition, consumption of the key material from the nature depletes the same and without a concerted eco-responsible effort the natural resource is lost for ever. Green Manufacturing Enabling... Read More

N-Acetyl Cysteine Decreases Mice Brain Acetyl Cholinesterase Activity

Image Here a kinetic in vitro study of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) on mouse brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was performed, as well, few studies with the aim to improve Ellman’s methodology based on SH contain compounds. The ideal 5,5´-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) concentration was of 0.3 mM and ideal medium pH=7.4. AChE demonstrated linear activity for all acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCh) tested concentrations (0.025-0.450 mM). To avoid any DTNB-NAC interaction interference, 30 sec were applied to the assay method, so-called stabilization time. No differences i... Read More

Lipase Catalysed Trans Esterification

Image   There has been great emphasis on the use of biodiesel due to worldwide scarcity of fossil fuels, increasing crude oil prices and environmental concerns to reduce pollution. Production of biodiesel from biologically derived oils involves trans esterification of these triglycerides with short chain alcohols to yield alkyl esters of fatty acids. These can be used in engines which are having compression ignition (diesel) and are termed as “biodiesel”. Trans esterification catalysis reaction can be chemical and enzymatic by nature. The disadvantages of chem... Read More

Perioperative Management Access of Peritonitis at the Regional University Hospital of Oueme-Plateau (CHUD/OP) at Porto-Novo in Benin Republic

Image Journal of Perioperative Medicine is a peer reviewed, open access periodical that underlines the importance of pre-operative medical care, procedures and protocols in assuring stress free and healthy post-operative life of the patient. Journal of Perioperative Medicine is spotlight on Local Anesthesia, Sedation, Regional Anesthesia, Anesthetic A... Read More

Prioritisation of quality indicators for elective perioperative care: a Delphi consensus

Image Journal of Perioperative Medicine publishes high-impact original work in all branches of anaesthesia, critical care medicine, pain medicine and perioperative medicine including fundamental, translational and clinical sciences, clinical practice, technology, education and training. The journal has a well-respected editorial board and provides a sharp focus on the topics and issues facing the profession of Internal Medicine with a combination of society news, clini... Read More

Non Pharmacological Use of Daucus Carota Juice (Carrot Juice) as Dietary Intervention in Reducing Hypertension

Image The word diuresis is derived from the Greek word ourein which means ‘’to urinate’’. The diuretic agents are not only involved in the excretion of water but also capable to remove or excrete other urinary constituents which may be beneficial in the treatment of different conditions like hypertension, edema. Diuretic agents reduce morbidity and mortality related to stroke and congestive heart failure in hypertensive patients. Hypertension can be defined as sustained increase in systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg and diastolic pressure greater than ... Read More

Impacted Cera Septal Occluder Device in Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT): A Potential Challenge for the Anesthesiologist

Image Journal of Perioperative Medicine publishes original work of high scientific quality. Preference is given to experimental work or clinical observation in man, and to laboratory work of clinical relevance. Journal of Perioperative Medicine also publishes commissioned narrative reviews by an authority in a field of interest to those working in anaesthesiology, pain, emergency medicine or intensive care. Editorials, commissioned commentaries and book reviews also included.... Read More

Purification Propensity for Proteins from Bacillus halodurans

Image The demand for proteins with special purposes increases significantly. These proteins are generally obtained through recombinant proteins; however their purification is costly and not easy. It is necessarily important to develop a method to estimate the chance of purification beforehand in order to have a prospective on proteins in question. Purification of a protein should be related to instinct properties of a protein including its 3D structure, and so far around 540 amino acid properties are found. Thus it is possible to test each amino acid property against the successful rate... Read More

Modeling Analyses on the Success Rate of Purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins

Image Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used yeast in research and industries, however the downstream processes for its protein production are costly. This study attempted to find out a simple way to predict the success rate of protein purification with amino acid features. Logistic regression and neural network model were used to test each of 535 amino acid features one by one against the purification state of 1294 expressed proteins from S. cerevisiae, of which 870 were purified. The results show that the predictive performance of neural network is more powerful than that of... Read More

Impacted Cera Septal Occluder Device in Right Ventricular Outflow Tract

Image Journal of Perioperative Medicine is an open access journal that publishes highly topical clinical research relating to the perioperative care of surgical patients.  Journal of Perioperative Medicine   essence is the distillation, examination and application of clinical evidence to improve surgical outcome. Modern perioperative medicine is a true multidisciplinary speciality and the journal welcomes research in all areas relevant to perioperative medicine fr... Read More

Torsion of Para-Ovarian Cyst

Image Single-Blind Peer Review Journal devoted to the clinical practice of anaesthesia. Journal of Perioperative Medicine a wide range of articles in the discipline of anesthesiology including basic science, translational medicine, education, and clinical research to create a platform for the authors to make their contribution towards the field without restrictions/ barriers of subscription and language. ... Read More

Cephalosporin C Production from Acremonium chrysogenum

Image Cephalosporin C demand is increasing worldwide because of its enhanced antibacterial spectrum that it can be used to treat diseases and infections caused by Gram positive/or Gram negative bacterial strains. Cephalosporin C is easily produced from the fungus Acremonium chrysogenum by the process of fermentation in a bioreactor under optimum reaction conditions to obtain maximum yield of the antibiotic. Additional chemical and structural modifications in the existing cephalosporin C could further enhance its antimicrobial spectrum. Acremonium chrysogen... Read More

Anaesthesia and Perioperative Care

Image Journal of Perioperative Medicine (JPME) is an international, peer reviewed, open access journal committed to publish innovative research in the field of anaesthesia and pain medicine. Anaesthesia means temporary ‘loss of sensation or awareness' usually given as gas to breathe in, injections, ointments, drops or sprays to stop the painless performance of medical procedures. It is usually given as gas to breathe in, injections, ointments, drops or sprays. ... Read More

Enzyme Expression

Image The metabolic enzyme expression remodelling is now widely known as hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. In this it shows the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses. Enzymes are an important staple in the biopharmaceutical, agricultural and chem... Read More


Image A bioprocess is a specific process that uses complete living cells or their components (e.g., bacteria, enzymes, chloroplasts) to obtain desired products. Transport of energy and mass is fundamental to many biological and environmental processes. Areas, from food processing (including brewing beer) to thermal design of buildings to biomedical devices to pollution control and global warming, require knowledge of how energy and mass can be transported through materials (momentum, heat transfer, etc.). Cell bioprocessing: Cell therapy bioprocessi... Read More

Potential Challenge for the Anaesthesiologist

Image Journal of Perioperative Medicine is multidisciplinary medical field related to perioperative care of surgical patients. Journal of Perioperative Medicine is medical patient care from the time of contemplation of surgery to recuperate from surgical period to improve the surgical outcome. Surgeon, anesthetist, intensivist and physician work closely in such field. However anesthetist play major role in perioperative medicine from pre anesthesia check prior to surgery. ... Read More

Biochemical Changes and Cardiovascular Function

Image Clinical & Medical Biochemistry  covers the research areas in the field of Clinical Biochemistry, Pathological, Microbiological, Molecular, Cellular, Genetic and Bioinformatics concepts and other advanced techniques. The journal primary mission to serve the public interest in health care by providing leadership in clinical laboratory science to national professional societies, the diagnostics industry, government and non-government organization. Journal of Clinical... Read More

Evaluation of the Ophthalmology

Image Publishing highly topical clinical research relating to the perioperiative care of surgical patients, Journal of Perioperative Medicine  aims to disseminate the distillation, examination and application of clinical evidence to improve surgical outcome. Understanding that modern perioperative medicine is a multidisciplinary speciality, we welcome research in all areas relevant to perioperative medicine from any healthcare professional. ... Read More

Care of the Mother and Neonate

Image   Journal of Pregnancy and Neonatal Medicine(JPNM) is an open access, peer reviewed, scholarly journal that focusses on the publication of research developments in the various aspects of fertility, pregnancy, child birth and neonatal care. Pregnancy and neonatal medicine research are of high significance and it is indispensable for assuring the good health of new mothers and babies. Journal of Pregnancy and Neonatal Medicine(JPNM) integrates ... Read More

Inviting you to Join as an Editorial Board: Open Access Journal

Image Inviting you to Join as an Editorial Board: Open Access Journal    “Journal of Thyroid Disorders & Therapy” offers the most comprehensive and reliable information pertaining to the latest developments in the field. The Journal also believes in advancing new hypotheses and opinions by means of its high-quality Reviews, Perspectives, and Commentaries. Thus, the content published in the journal is original and comprehensive. Manuscripts are subjected to rigorous peer review, where acclaimed scientists that are part of the... Read More

Journal of Forensic Biomechanics would like to celebrate its thanksgiving by Providing High Discounts on APC

Image Journal of Forensic Biomechanics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal and aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. covering forensic biomechanics, ... Read More