Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unclear etiology with the potential affection of major organs. It most commonly affects the lungs, skin, eyes, and lymph nodes. Less frequent, though possibly underestimated, manifestations are rheumatic and renal disease. As a systemic disease, it can present in numerous ways and mimic many other conditions, including infections and cancer. While it has been proposed that an abnormal immunologic response to antigens leads to granulomatous inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals, much has to be learned.
Sarcoidosis can present as an acute and self-limiting disease or progress to a chronic and potentially debilitating disorder. The acute form, Löfgren's syndrome, typically presents with an ankle periarthritis, bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, and erythema nodosum. The chronic type of the disease may be less straightforward to identify: it may present with relapsing episodes of uveitis, mimic asthma with a dry cough, or present with cervical lymphadenopathy as the first symptom.
Not every patient with sarcoidosis requires treatment. In the acute form, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be all that is necessary. However, patients with a chronic disease course frequently need immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, or even advanced treatment for refractory disease. With newly available therapies for rheumatic diseases, such as biological agents and JAK-inhibitors, their role in the treatment of sarcoidosis is yet to be determined.
With this research topic, we seek to give a current overview of advances in experimental and clinical research in sarcoidosis, including potential new biomarkers and imaging techniques. We invite authors from different subspecialties, such as pulmonary medicine, rheumatology, cardiology, dermatology, neurology, and others, to contribute their original research articles and reviews that advance the field of sarcoidosis, one of the great mimickers in clinical medicine.
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Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research