Applications of Enzyme Engineering for Better World
Engineered proteins can be used to optimize desired traits in plants; even though recent advances have resulted in new application areas, certain methodological challenges remain. Protein engineering and directed evolution are powerful technologies for probing protein sequence-function relationships. These methods have been used to engineer both plant-derived proteins and exogenous proteins heterologously expressed in plants.
In this review, we aim to further increase the interdisciplinary crossover between the disciplines of protein engineering and plant biology by first introducing protein engineering in some detail. This introduction is key to understanding current limitations to protein engineering when applied to plants. Subsequently, we provide an overview of the recent methodological progress in, and novel applications of, protein engineering and directed evolution in plant research.
Protein engineering is the process by which a researcher modifies a protein sequence through substitution, insertion, or deletion of nucleotides in the encoding gene, with the goal of obtaining a modified protein that is more suitable for a particular application or purpose than the unmodified protein. The focus on application sets protein engineering apart from the broader term “targeted mutagenesis.” Targeted mutagenesis, or site-directed mutagenesis, is a method whereby a specific site within a gene sequence is altered (Hutchison et al., 1978). Such alterations can be performed for engineering purposes, as in protein engineering, or for examining the effect of specific mutations in a gene.
Directed protein evolution—a method that was awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry in 2018—is a specific conceptual and methodological approach within protein engineering (Chen and Arnold, 1993; Arnold, 1998). The conceptual approach recognizes that we have a limited capability to predict the impact of individual amino acid substitutions on protein properties, but measuring the effect of those same substitutions can be readily achieved. The methodological approach involves generating a large set of diverse protein sequences, with some representing a potential solution to the engineering goal, and then experimentally screening the resulting proteins for desirable properties and functions.
Our esteemed journal EEG is looking forward for the upcoming issue (Volume8: Issue2) having journal impact factor of 1* and nearly 83 articles are cited in Google scholar site. We are glad for the upcoming year issue release as all the authors are invited to submit their recent scientific work through manuscripts in the mode of Research/Case Reports/Case Studies/Reviews/Short Review/ Short Communications/Commentaries/Short Commentaries/Letters to Editor/ Image articles etc., from different regions around the world.
Our Journal welcomes submissions of manuscripts on the topics covering Bioprocess, Enzyme Expression, Enzyme Kinetics, Protein Interaction, Protein Purification, Protein Engineering, Enzyme, Metabolic Engineering, etc. In the quality perspective, the journal is determined to maintain an exceptionally high standard in both facts and ethics. Accuracy and authenticity in the scientific reports of present journal are conserved above all nominal needs of the time.
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Enzyme Engineering: Open-Access